During the expedition, Ross discovers the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf: this region would later serve as the starting point for both Amundsen and Scott’s expeditions to the South Pole in 1911. Three men died during the expedition. The first polar pleasure trips took place in the Arctic, starting in 1893 along the Northern Norway coastline. During his expedition, he sights new areas of the continent including Enderby Land and Graham Land. These early voyages were operated by the Norwegian shipping company that formed Hurtigruten, sailing a summer route between Trondheim and Hammerfest and a winter route between Trondheim and Tromsø. Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. 2 3 7 732. It was later sold to Argentina. 1899 Norwegian Carsten Borchgrevink leads the first British expedition in what would come to be known as the ‘Heroic Age’ of Antarctic exploration. Seventeen of the original 52 dogs would make it to the Pole, and 12 made it back. For God’s sake look after our people.’. Expedition ship Discovery in Antarctica But it was not until the early 1900s that Antarctica would really seize the headlines. Further exploration of Antarctica was carried out by an American named Charles Wilkes in … The initial plan included the use of ponies, dogs and tractors to carry supplies, with only the final push to the Pole using manpower alone. They were equipped with skis and dogs for pulling sleds. They proved that it was possible to survive even the extremely harsh Antarctic winter. A Brief History of Antarctica. Separately Edward Bransfield was the second person to see Antarctica on 30 January 1820. The Antarctic Treaty was drawn up in 1959 and it came into force in 1961. Scott discovered that he was in a ‘race’ on 13 October after landing in Melbourne, Australia. President of Chile Gabriel Gonzalez Videla during his visit in the 1940s. Mount Everest climber Edmund Hillary leads part of the mission, laying supplies for the crossing party as far as the South Pole. Amundsen.’. Marisol Maddox, Arctic Analyst with the Polar Institute, began the event by introducing the speakers and providing a brief introduction to U.S. interests in the Arctic. 1 August 1914 Ernest Shackleton departs on the Endurance on his Trans-Antarctic Expedition, aiming to become the first to cross Antarctica from sea to sea via the South Pole. The name Antarctica comes from the Greek word antarktiké meaning 'opposite to the north.' It is also the world’s highest, driest, windiest, coldest, and iciest continent. The first man to actually see the continent of Antarctica was an Estonian named Fabian von Bellinngsingshausen on 27 January 1820. Meanwhile, in 1901-02 a British expedition to Antarctica was led by Robert Falcon Scott. Then in 1892-94, a Norwegian called Carl Larson sailed to the southern continent. The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe. Among the crew on the ship is Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, later to become the first person to reach the South Pole. The term Antarctic, referring to the opposite of the Arctic Circle, was coined by Marinus of Tyre in the 2nd century AD. 19 January 1915 Endurance becomes stuck in the pack ice of the Weddell Sea. Explorers wanted to win the Race to the South Pole more than understand Antarcticas environment. Their trip to Antarctica also included the construction of 50 handmade dwellings stitched from national flags, clothing and other objects that symbolize Antarctica’s borderless possibilities. Around the same time, Royal Navy officer Edward Bransfield reported seeing ‘high mountains, covered with snow’ during a British mapping expedition. On 9 January 1909, Shackleton, Frank Wild, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams come within 97 miles of the South Pole, but the return trip almost costs them their lives. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). 1839-41 James Clark Ross commands Erebus and Terror (the ships later to be lost during Franklin’s search for the North-West Passage) to the Antarctic. Written by Bhagwati Prasad Semwal VU3BPZ-8T2BH. In 1895 another Norwegian, Henrik Bull discovered lichens growing on the Possession Islands, the first time plants had been found growing south of the Antarctic Circle. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. Antarctica is the Earth's southernmost continent, roughly centered around the South Pole. Also in 1958, a team led by Vivian Fuchs became the first men to cross Antarctica overland. 4 TH CENTURY B.C. Furthermore in 1823 a Scot named James Weddell explored the Weddell Sea. 23 June 1961 The Antarctic Treaty comes into force, an international agreement establishing how the continent should be protected and governed. Twelve countries – Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the UK and the USA – first signed the international treaty in 1959, declaring that Antarctica should be ‘a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science’. The Casey station we use today opened in 1988. redditormade. The closest solid land, the uninhabited Elephant Island, is over 100 miles away, but all three boats reach their destination on 17 April. He discovered fossil wood, the first indication that the climate of Antarctica had once been much warmer. Long before human eyes ever beheld Antarctica, the ancients were convinced it existed – or at least something like it. 15 December 1911 At 3pm Roald Amundsen becomes the first person to reach the South Pole. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! A Brief History of Antarctica in Maps By Oceanwide Expeditions 02-04-2018 07:31:56 From Terra Australis to Antarctica. : Aristotle theorizes that there must be a land mass in the south to balance the known lands in the northern hemisphere. When the Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington in 1959, Antarctica became devoted solely to … This is in effect until 2048, at which point it can be revisited. How Antarctica Became Isolated (and cold) A Geological Timeline Antarctica used to have a tropical climate, it cooled down slowly over many millions of years for three main reasons: 1 - the continent drifted south until it settled over the South Pole. The Weddell Sea is named after him, as is the Weddell seal – the most southerly breeding land mammal in the world. 1910 Robert Falcon Scott and Roald Amundsen both depart for Antarctica on their separate expeditions to reach the South Pole. However the Greeks and later peoples had no way of proving it. He only revealed his South Pole ambitions to his crew after he had set sail. Because early explorers confronted extreme obstacles and debilitating conditions, this period of time became known as the Heroic Age. The crew finally abandon the ship on 27 October, and all 28 men are left stranded on the frozen sea. Lying in the Antarctic Circle that rings the southern part of the globe, Antarctica is the fifth largest continent. 5 January 1922 Ernest Shackleton dies of a heart attack during an expedition to the Antarctic on board the Quest. Email address to receive notifications of new posts by email discover that his ship had left just hours before unsupported. 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