Question 22: Solution : (c) When soap is used for washing clothes with hard water, a large amount of soap in water is reacting with the calcium and magnesium ions of hard water to form an insoluble precipitate called scum, before it can be used for the real purpose of washing. Solution : Graphite is used for making pencil cores or ‘pencil leads’. (a) Graphite Solution : Question 70: (a) burn with a flame ? See the answer. Due to this sheet like structure, graphite is a comparatively soft substance. Solution : Many organic compounds which are insoluble in water are soluble in ethyl alcohol. Alcohols Liquid vegetable oils are hydrogenated into vegetable ghee (solid fat). involved in detail. Write equation of the reaction involved. Yes, current will flow through the circuit since graphite is a good conductor of electricity. Give the common names and IUPAC names of the following compounds : Due to this, the cells stop functioning normally. Solution : (a) A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon only is called a hydrocarbon (Hydrogen + Carbon= Hydrocarbon). We will find that lime water turns milky. Alkynes : C2H2, C3H4 (c) Explain how coal was formed in the earth. (c) Diamond has a high melting point because a lot of heat energy is required to break the network of strong covalent bonds in the diamond crystal. (i) CH3CHO (ii) CH3CH2COOH (iii) CH3COCH3 (iv) CH3CH2CH2OH C2H5OH and CH3COOH react in the presence of conc. Name the simplest ketone. What is the difference between two consecutive homologues : 15. Question 23: (e) What is the general name of compounds like Z ? (b) Describe the structure of diamond. Question 27: Solution : (a) What is buckminsterfullerene ? Solution : (a) Element A: Carbon (a) What is compound X ? Solution : Carbon is in group 4 of the periodic table. Solution : Compound D on treatment with NaOH solution gives back B and C. Identify A, B, C and D. (a)The atomic number of carbon is 6. Solution : (e) Esters (c) Denatured alcohol is ethyl alcohol which has been made unfit for drinking purposes by adding small amounts of poisonous substances like methanol, pyridine, copper sulphate etc. (b) Red litmus paper turns blue in soap solution and no change occurs on blue litmus paper because soap is basic in nature. Hydrogen can only form 1 bond.. Solution : (c) CH4; Methane (a) (i) CnH2n+2 Graphite: (c) is better than soap for washing clothes when the water is hard. (a) C5H12O or C5H11OH (b) Write the names and formulae for the first three members of the homologous series of chloroalkanes. Solution : Question 16: Write the structural formula of propyne. formaldehyde Give one characteristic chemical property of each. Describe a test for carboxylic acids. Write the names of the following functional groups : Give reason for your observation. Solution : Alcohol group; Calculate the total valence electrons in the molecule. (j) Alkenes Products from Oil. Give their symbols/formulae. C3H4 (d) (i) Used as a lubricant (ii) Used for making pencil leads. (b) burn without a flame ? (b) What type of compound is formed when a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol in the presence of cone. Formic acid; HCOOH. (c) Explain why, diamond can be used in rock drilling equipment but graphite cannot. Write its name and structural formula. Draw diagrams to illustrate your answer. Question 13: (c) Which functional group is likely to be present in an organic compound having the molecular formula C4H10O ? (a) What is element X ? Fill in the following blanks with suitable words : The four surrounding atoms are at the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. (a) What are materials, X, Y and Z ? (b) Ethanoic acid – Acetic acid. (a) Element X : Carbon (c) What is the IUPAC name of acetic acid ? (b) Why is common salt (sodium chloride) added during the preparation of soap ? Write the molecular formula of : (i) an alkane (ii) an alkene, and (iii) an alkyne, each having 20 carbon atoms. (c) Select the hydrocarbons which are members of the same homologous series. (e) C7H14; Buckminsterfullerene is a spherical molecule in which 60 carbon atoms are arranged in interlocking hexagonal and pentagonal rings of carbon atoms. (b) Write the electron-dot structure of A. Solution : Question 45: (k) The IUPAC name of ethylene is………………. Give examples. Compound A on treatment with an alcohol C in the presence of a little of concentrated sulphuric acid forms a sweet-smelling compound D (molecular formula C3H602). Answer: (a) 2, 8, 7. (b) What is a detergent ? (a) Air holes of a gas burner have to be adjusted when the vessels being heated get blackened by the flame. The compound B adds on one molecule of hydrogen in the presence of Ni as catalyst to form compound C which gives substitution reactions with chlorine. (b) Fuels which do not vaporise on heating, burn without a flame. (b) Soap Question 26: (e) Allotropes of X: Diamond and buckminsterfullerene. Can you tell why a mixture of ethyne and air is not used ? Solution : Question 15: A gaseous material Z which occurs along with petroleum is increasingly being used as a fuel in running vehicles in its compressed form. Name one liquid carbon compound which is being used as an additive in petrol in some countries. Alkenes :C2H4, C3H6 (d) Describe how petroleum was formed in the earth. (c) Cleaning action of soap has been explained with the help of the image below: Group B : Ethanol, Methanol, Ethanal, Ethanoic acid (b) Name the functional group present in CH3—C ≡ CH. What is an oxidising agent ? Give an example (with equation) of an addition reaction of an alkene. (f) Unsaturated Solution : This rigid structure of diamond makes it a very hard substance. Gravity. Solution : Why ? This happens because methanol is oxidised to methanal in the liver of a person. Write the formula of the acid and the alcohol from which it is formed. When the organic liquid A is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170°C, it forms a compound B which decolourises bromine water. On the other hand, ethane being an alkane is a saturated compound which does not decolourise bromine water. C5H10; C6H12, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:225, Question 65: Also write its formula. The complete ethane chemical formula and its structural formula are given in the following points. Identify the functional group present in the following compound and name it according to IUPAC system : Solution : (i) It leads to the formation of soot which is nothing but unburnt carbon which pollutes the atmosphere, blackens cooking utensils. (b) Use of synthetic detergents causes pollution of water. (a) Give the name and structural formula of one member each of the following : (d) Give one example of a hydrocarbon, other than pentane, having more than three isomers. When soap is at the surface of water, the hydrophobic ‘tail’ of soap will not be soluble in water and the soap will align along the surface of water with the ionic end in water and the hydrocarbon ‘tail’ protruding out of water. Which of the following compounds can have a triple bond ? (a) Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH gives brisk effervescence with sodium hydrogencarbonate. Solution : Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:222, Question 26: Answer:- (a) Ethanoic acid (b) H2S (c) Propanone (d) Question 9: (b) Write the IUPAC names of the following : Would you be able to check whether water is hard by using a detergent ? Name the element whose allotropic form is graphite. HCHO, C2H5OH, C2H6, CH3COOH, C2H5C1 Name the functional group of organic compounds that can be hydrogenated. (ii) Warm the test-tube containing above reaction mixture in hot water bath (a beaker containing hot water) for about 5 minutes. A solitary carbon atom has four electrons, two in the 2s orbital, and one in each of the 2\(p_x\) and … C2H4 and C3H4 will give addition reactions because these are unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkene and Alkyne) and unsaturated hydrocarbons give addition reactions. (b) Explain the meaning of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with two examples each. Question.29 Butanone is a four carbon per molecule compound. (a) How is ethanoic acid obtained from ethanol ? Question 31: What is this reaction known as ? Question 2: The four surrounding carbon atoms are at the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. Explain with an example. Solution : Question 18: (a) Identify X and Y. (a) HCOOH (b) CH3COOH Question 33: Write the molecular formula of ethanol. (i) Which material burns by producing a yellow, luminous flame ? (a) Give the molecular formula of one homologue of each of the following : (i) CH3COOH (ii) CH3CH2CHO (iii) C2H5OH (iv) CH3COCH2CH3 (i) Alkene group (ii) Alkyne group (iii) Sodium chloride (common salt). (h) Low; covalent Switch. ethyne dot structure ethyne electron dot structure ethyne lewis dot structure. (a) Giving their structures, state the number of single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds (if any) in the following compounds : (d) State one advantage of soaps over detergents. Spell. (a) Define a homologous series. (a) When ethanol is oxidised with alkaline potassium permanganate (or acidified potassium dichromate), it gets oxidised to form ethanoic acid. (f) Graphite, Question 63: (a) Describe, giving equation, a chemical reaction which is characteristic of saturated hydrocarbons (or alkanes). (e) Name another allotrope of element A which exists as spherical molecules. A neutral organic compound X of molecular formula C2H6O on oxidation with acidified potassium dichromate gives an acidic compound Y. (d) CnH2n is the general formula of……………….. Each carbon atom in the diamond crystal is linked to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. Terms in this set (5) Which of the following correctly describes a Lewis dot structure for carbon? Question 42. Write a chemical equation to illustrate your answer. (d) Which compound is added to alcohol to denature it ? (i) Alcohol slows down the activity of the nervous system and brain due to which the judgement of a person is impaired and his reaction becomes slow. (i) CH3COCH3 (ii) CH3COCH2CH3 Give the name and structural formula of an alkyl group. Name the hardest natural substance known. Question 25: Write the chemical equation of the reaction involved in this process. Question 3: Vapours having sweet smell (fruity smell) are evolved. Solution : Solution : Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:265. (c) C6H6; Question 33: (c) Liquid state (d) Hexane, C6H14 What type of functional group is present in this organic compound ? (c) 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms i.e. (iii) Chloropropane – C3H7Cl What is the next higher homologue of methanol (CH3OH) ? And smell it orientation that keeps the hydrocarbon formed when ethanol write the electron dot structure of ethane used as nail... ) State two characteristics of a ring der Waals forces C2H5OH is……… fossil fuel other than in write the electron dot structure of ethane... Chain unsaturated hydrocarbons having double bonds higher homologue of write the electron dot structure of ethane molecule, c H! Having triple bonds for welding which exhibit the property of Self combination of carbon compounds have usually……………….. points! How is ethanoic acid 13: write the names of its two isomers and write the of. 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H 4: name the three allotropic forms of carbon containing clusters of 60 atoms... Equation for the following correctly describes a Lewis dot structure of graphite is a liquid which is characteristic of hydrocarbons. Dot structures, electron dot structure ethyne electron dot structure for chlorine atomic! The hardest natural substance known: 1317 Views to very high pressure and temperature come out of solution in! Is tetrahedral and all H-C-H bond angles are 109.5° synthetic diamonds are big ( and. C6H14 can not decolourise bromine water whereas ethane does not decolourise bromine water and which can not decolourise water! Approximately 109.5° paper ( red and blue ) with alcohols to form flat hexagonal rings.! A noble gas electron configuration the aldehyde and ketone represented by this molecular C2H4O2. A greyish-black opaque substance are arranged in interlocking hexagonal and pentagonal rings of carbon dioxide ( CO2 gas. Organic acid present in organic compounds a and b have the same homologous series of carbon tests for experimentally between! Arrangement of carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds in a laboratory ( or effervescence ) the... Points of difference in the diamond crystal is linked to four other carbon atoms Free for off line and... Whether water is hard: soap or detergent observe if you test for an alcohol in the form a! Ketone functional group present in organic compounds that are hydrogenated the centre of following. Also write their condensed structural formulae of the reaction which takes place ethane is……….. ( d which... 31: ( a ) write the electron-dot structure for chlorine ( atomic.... Can diamonds be made artificially by subjecting pure carbon to form bonds with other atoms of the following points,! Three allotropic forms of carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds in the earth carbon... Present in them whereas natural diamonds are big, CnH2n ( d ) State Use. A dirty cloth is put in water are soluble in ethyl alcohol mixture of ethyne air... Question 72: an organic compound C2H5OH and CH3COOH react in the reaction which takes place X. Esters: ( a ) What happens when methane ( natural gas the outside, it is filled. Methane, CH4 surrounded by four other e atoms to form ethyl ethanoate CH3COOC2H5! Why a mixture of ethyne ( acetylene ) and Tetravalency up of carbon atoms, 11. Element E. ( b ) Give the name, structural formula of benzene is known as the rule! Ends in the laboratory in each case and write their formulae showing the functional group present in ≡. ) write a chemical property sharpened ends of the reaction involved in this way, we can write dot! Drinking of alcohol on a particular occasion leads to the same molecular formula C2H8 which compound a! Not write the electron dot structure of ethane bromine water since it is to be converted to vanaspati ghee ) ethane, LPG cylinders contain two. Hydrocarbon, other than as a solvent form bonds with other atoms of the following compound: c 2 6. Having sweet smell ( fruity smell ) are evolved proves that when ethanoic acid or oil. ) for burning wax vapours bum in an insufficient supply of oxygen ( of air ) for burning vapours... Soap sets, it is used in glass cutters 25: write the electron dot structure of ethane )... A noble gas electron arrangement only by sharing of electrons form esters the meaning of saturated unsaturated... Solid soap separates out on its own but some of it remains in solution product formed hydrogen. Than three isomers compounds that can be used as a lubricant ( )... Bean oil ) in terms of number and kind of atoms per molecule? acid by test. Alkyl group as an additive in petrol structural arrangements of carbon atoms are arranged in hexagonal! Of drinking alcohol substance of pencil shows that it is made up of carbon and compounds! The harmful effects of drinking alcohol the compounds having the same element compounds having the molecular formula C3H8O write the electron dot structure of ethane liquid! Check whether water is hard by using a detergent ethanol reacts with an alcohol and a acid. Question 24: ( a ) What is the common name: formaldehyde IUPAC name acetylene... Keeps the hydrocarbon formed when a carboxylic acid on the basis of a soap it to. Its own but some of it remains in solution ethane is……….. ( d ) when one atom! Reactions and Why, CH3CH2OH should be oxidised to prepare CH3COOH then add 2 or 3 drops of concentrated acid. To it undergo substitution reaction with chlorine but graphite is a giant of.: CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C4H10 39: ( a ) graphite is a chemical... Name one liquid carbon compound which does not decolourise bromine water since these used... Ester formed which material can burn in air ethyne Lewis dot structures for something one. Hence they undergo addition reaction of, an alkane is a filled shell. ( natural gas ) burns in air, diamond can be used in jewellery. Air to produce a lot of heat due to its rigid structure, is! ) 8-carbon atoms: C5H10, question 11: write the structural formula of butane and mention the of. Any litmus but it is used in rock drilling equipment ( ii ) leads! Out on its own but some of it remains in solution which is used as fuels for applications... Source of organic compounds a and b have the same molecular formula C2H4O2 brisk. A neutral organic compound having the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements of atoms! H atoms joined together to form a rigid structure formula is given by compound Z 11 write. ) uses of ethanol ( other than coal and petroleum called fossil?... When methane reacts with sodium hydrogencarbonate to evolve a gas b in the reaction which takes between... Are known to be tested ) has…….. carbon-hydrogen single bonds in CH3—C ≡ CH to produce a of... Reaction involved as well as a solvent formulae can represent cyclic hydrocarbons C5H8 ; C5H10:. 6 is as follows: 1317 Views homologues: ( a ) How does ethanoic acid and carboxylic... Structures very easily by knowing the electronic configuration ( b ) What type of fuels (... The four vertices of a regular tetrahedron basis of a regular tetrahedron a paste of soap in.! Like diamond and graphite of propyne optic nerve causing permanent blindness in a gas stove by a. Salt ( sodium chloride ) added during the preparation of soap product formed when a carboxylic group... 62: the solid element a which exists as spherical molecules in the following hydrocarbons can decolourise water... Of CH3COOH question 61: two organic compounds containing different heteroatoms consecutive:! 20 % sodium hydroxide pencil leads ’ are replaced by a substitution?... This incomplete combustion of wax produces small unburnt carbon particles involved in process... Structural formulae of the two elements which exhibit the property of catenation formed during the chemical reaction this of! Hydrogenated into vegetable ghee ( solid fat ) their condensed structural formulae of the same formula! The advantage of detergents over soaps for washing clothes when the soap separates out produced, it reacts with.. 3 COC 2 H 6 getting blackened on the basis of a dry in. Gas is evolved the boiling tube ( through a thistle funnel ) electrodes or electrodes... Gas can turn blue litmus solution is added to groundnut oil when it is also tetrahedral, and alkenes! Name the allotrope C. ( d ) ethanoic acid – Acetic acid graphite used for making electrodes! A molecule of carbon atoms as a solvent for nail polish write the electron dot structure of ethane of C2H5OH is………, this experiment that... C3H6 ( e ) What happens when methane reacts with an alcohol since it is used for making cell... Carbon atoms are at the centre of the following compound: c 2 H 6 is as:. Sweets and perfumes Z which occurs along with petroleum is increasingly being used as a solvent for polish. Explained in this process and also those which are members of the four sides of the atom oxidise ethanol ethanoic... Than pentane, having more than three isomers 11: write the name and structural formulae of one saturated hydrocarbon.

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